Giuseppe Verdi | Aida
Renato Palumbo debütierte im Alter von 19 Jahren mit Verdi’s „Il Trovatore“. Heute zählt er zu den wichtigsten Verdi-Dirigenten seiner Generation. Er begann seine internationale Karriere als Musikdirektor an der Istanbul State Opera and Ballet. In gleicher Position war er in Capetown beim Macao Festival und an der Deutschen Oper Berlin tätig. Er ist häufiger Gast an renommierten Häusern u.a. in Washington, Chicago, London, Paris, Nizza, Barcelona und Bilbao. Ebenso gastiert er in Italien an der Scala di Milano, Teatro Regio in Turin, Teatro Regio diParma, Teatro Carlo Felice in Genua, Teatro Piccini in Bari, am Teatro Lirico in Cagliari, beim Maggio Musicale in Florenz und beim Rossini Opera Festival in Pesaro. Palumbo ist anerkannter Dirigent einer Vielzahl von Werken Mozarts und Rossinis mit Fokus auf Opern wie „Elisabetta“, „Bianca e Falliero“, „Otello“ und „Guillaume Tell“. Seine Diskografie beinhaltet „Robert le diable“ und „Les Huguenots“ (Meyerbeer), „Hans Heiling“ (Marschner), „Germania“ (Franchetti), „La Cenerentola“, „Bianca e Falliero“ (Rossini) und „Simon Boccanegra“ (Verdi). Sein Repertoire umfasst außerdem Werke von Bellini, Donizetti und Puccini, sowie französische und deutsche Werke von Bizet, Offenbach, von Weber, Wagner, Meyerbeer und Marschner.
Eberhard Friedrich, geboren in Darmstadt, studierte Dirigieren bei Helmuth Rilling in Frankfurt am Main. Ab 1986 war er Chordirektor am Theater der Stadt Koblenz, ab 1991 am Hessischen Staatstheater Wiesbaden. Von 1998 bis 2013 leitete er den Chor der Staatsoper Unter den Linden in Berlin. Seit der Spielzeit 2013/14 ist er Chordirektor der Staatsoper Hamburg.
Schon seit 1993 arbeitet Eberhard Friedrich außerdem bei den Bayreuther Festspielen. Zunächst begann er seine Tätigkeit dort als Assistent, im Jahr 2000 wurde er zum Chordirektor des Festspielchores berufen. Daneben gastierte er bei zahlreichen anderen renommierten Chören, darunter die Sänger der Internationalen Bachakademie Stuttgart, der Philharmonische Chor Prag, der Chor des Niederländischen Rundfunks, der Rundfunkchor Berlin, der Rias Kammerchor und der Bayerische Rundfunkchor. 2003 gewann die Einspielung des „Tannhäuser“ an der Staatsoper Unter den Linden mit Daniel Barenboim einen Grammy. Für diese Aufnahme hatte Eberhard Friedrich die Chorpartien einstudiert, wie auch für mehrere andere CD- und DVD-Aufnahmen. Im Rahmen seiner unterschiedlichen Projekte arbeitete Eberhard Friedrich mit zahlreichen bekannten Dirigenten zusammen. Neben Daniel Barenboim gehörten dazu unter anderem Pierre Boulez, Sir Simon Rattle und Marek Janowski. In der Saison 2012/13 übernahm er die Chorleitung an der Niederländischen Oper in Amsterdam für das selten gespielte Spätwerk „Guillaume Tell“ von Gioachino Rossini. Der Chor der Staatsoper Unter den Linden wurde, unter Eberhard Friedrichs Leitung, 2004 zum Chor des Jahres gewählt und erhielt 2009 den Europäischen Kulturpreis.
photo: Enrico Nawrath
Alexander Roslavets graduated from the vocal department of the St. Petersburg Rimsky-Korsakov State Conservatory in 2014 where he studied under Professor Nikolai Okhotnikov.
While studying at the Conservatory he was a soloist of the Rimsky-Korsakov St. Petersburg State Conservatory theatre where he appeared on stage as Malyuta Skuratov in “The Tsar's Bride” by Rimsky-Korsakov and sang at the numerous festivals and concerts. In July 2013/14 he took part at the open-air opera festivals in Saint Petersburg where he sang the parts of Mephistopheles in the opera “Faust” by Ch. Gounod and King Dodon in the opera “The Golden Cockerel” by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov conducted by Fabio Mastrangelo. In April 2014 he made his debut on the stage of the Mikhailovsky Theatre as Tom in “Un ballo in maschera” by Verdi.
In the seasons 2014/15-2015/16 he was an artist of the Young Artist Program of the Bolshoi Theatre of Russia. In 2015 he made his debut on the stage of the Bolshoi performing the part of Marchese d'Obigny in “La Traviata” by Verdi under the baton of Tugan Sokhiev.
In November 2015, he debuted on the stage of the Bolshoi theatre of Belarus singing Don Basilio in “Il Barbiere di Siviglia” by Rossini.
In June 2016 he performed the part of Duke of Cornwall in the World Premier of S. Slonimsky`s King Lear on the stage of the Tchaikovsky Concert Hall conducted by Vladimir Jurowsky.
In July 2016 he covered the part of Mephistopheles in the new production of “La damnation de Faust” staged by Peter Stein in the Bolshoi. He sung the part of Brander in the premiere conducted by Tugan Sokhiev.
In October 2016 he joined the ensemble of the Hamburg State Opera.
Alexander took part in several international competitions among which in 2014 the 42nd Russian National Vocal Graduates Competition in St. Petersburg where he won the Grand Prix and the 1st International Christmas Vocal Competition in Minsk where he was awarded a special prize. In 2015 he took part in the 10th International competition of E. Obraztsova in St. Petersburg where he was awarded a diploma and he won the first prize in the 7th International Competition of Opera Singers «Saint-Petersburg». In 2016 he won the second prize in the 6th Galina Vishnevskaya International Opera Singers Competition in Moscow and the Grand Prix and the Audience Prize in the II International Eva Marton Competition in Budapest. He is the laureate of the Special Foundation of the President of Belarus, which supports young talents.
photo: Jörn Kipping
Mezzosoprano Elena Zhidkova made her debut at the Deutsche Oper Berlin. Career highlights include appearances at the Bayreuth Festival, concertante “Parsifal” with Claudio Abbado and the Berlin Philharmonic, Mezzo soprano Elena Zhidkova made her professional debut at the Deutsche Oper Berlin. She appeared at the Bayreuth Festival. Claudio Abbado invited her for the concert version of Parsifal, for Schumann’s “Faustszenen” and for his farewell concert at the Berlin Philharmonic where she appeared again in Händel’s “Jephta” under the baton of Nikolaus Harnoncourt.
At the Teatro Real in Madrid she debuted as Waltraute (Götterdämmerung) and as Brangäne in Tristan und Isolde. A highly sought after guest performer in Tokyo as well she could be heard at the New National Theatre Tokyo among others as Octavian (Rosenkavalier), Fricka (Ring des Nibelungen) and Brangäne (Tristan und Isolde). She debuted very successfully as Judith in Bartok’s “Duke Bluebeard’s Castle” at the Teatro alla Scala, a role she has also created at the Barbican Hall London with the London Symphony Orchestra under Valéry Gergiev (published on CD).
Her interpretation of Judith (Herzog Blaubarts Burg) at the Mariinsky Theatre gained her the „Golden Mask“ award as best singing actress in Russia. She was invited to sing the same part under Seiji Ozawas at the Saito Kinen Festival (also published on CD). Her appearance as Fricka (Ring des Nibelungen) could be witnessed at the Deutsche Oper Berlin and in the new production of the tetralogy at the Grand Théâtre de Genève.
She could be seen as Venus in “Tannhäuser” at the Semperoper Dresden and sang Marie (Wozzeck) with the BBC Orchestra under Donald Runnicles. As Kundry (Parsifal) she appeared in Lyon, Mannheim and Düsseldorf. Successful performances include furthermore La Principessa di Bouillon (Adriana Lecouvreur), The Foreign Princess (Rusalka) and Eboli (Don Carlo) at the Wiener Staatsoper, Charlotte (Werther) under Michel Plasson, as well as her debut as Ortrud (Lohengrin).
She enjoyed great success as Didon in Berlioz’ ”Les Troyens” at the Hamburgische Staatsoper and Santuzza at the Deutsche Oper Berlin and the Opéra Bastille Paris.
Little Rock (Arkansas), USA
University of Central Arkansas, Knoxville School of Music of the University of Tennessee
College of Arts and Sciences Divisional Achievement Award for the Visual and Performing Arts of the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (2015), Orazio Tosi Prize given by the Club Lirica Parma (2012), “Oscar della Lirica” at the International Opera Awards (2010), Artist of the Year at Savonlinna Opera Festival (2010), finalist of the Concours International de Chant de Toulouse (2006), third prize at the Internationale Gesangswettbewerb Ferruccio Tagliavini (2005), second prize at the Concorso Internazionale Di Musica Gian Battista Viotti (2004), opera prize at the Concorso Internazionale Di Canto “Debutto A Merano” (2004), first place at the Metropolitan Opera National Council Auditions, Mid-South Region (2001, 1998), Puccini Award at the Orpheus National Music Competition (2003), MacAllister Awards Regional Winner (2003), second place at the Birmingham Opera Vocal Competition (2001)
Leonora (Il Trovatore), Aida (Aida), Micaëla (Carmen), Floria Tosca (Tosca), Amelia (Un Ballo in Maschera), Maddalena (Andrea Chénier), Elisabetta (Don Carlos), Liú (Turandot), Nedda (Pagliacci), Mimì (La Bohème), Ginevra (La cena delle beffe), Manon Lescaut (Manon Lescaut), Bess (Porgy and Bess), et al.
Teatro Carlo Felice, Bayerische Staatsoper, Teatro dell'Opera di Roma, Arena di Verona, Teatro Verdi di Padova, Teatro La Fenice, Opera of Bilbao, Teatro del Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, Opera Birmingham, Savonlinna Opera Festival, Teatro alla Scala, Wiener Staatsoper, Torre del Lago Festival, Royal Danish Opera, Teatro Regio di Torino, Grand Teatre del Liceu, Opera Hong Kong, et al.
Cooperation with directors:
Franco Dragone, Robert Dornhelm, Peter Stein, Mario Martone, Gianmaria Aliverta, et al.
Cooperation with conductors:
Daniele Gatti, Bruno Bartoletti, Daniel Oren, Omer Meir Wellber, Donato Renzetti, Riccardo Muti, Zubin Mehta, Renato Palumbo, Myung-Whun Chung, Xu Zhong, Gianandrea Noseda, Daniele Callegari, Jesús López-Cobos, Marco Armiliato, Carlo Rizzi, Asher Fisch, John Wilson, Daniele Rustioni, Alfred Eschwé, Jader Bignamini, Paolo Arrivabeni, Nicola Luisotti, Dan Ettinger, Alain Altinoglu, et al.
photo: Lena Kern
Marco Berti is the Italian tenor currently most sought-after by the world’s major opera houses, where he is appreciated for the splendid quality of his voice, his timbre “all’italiana”, the force of his high register, his innate musicality, his stage presence and artistic accomplishment.
Born in Como, he got his singing diploma at the “Conservatorio Giuseppe Verdi” in Milan in 1989 under the guidance of Giovanna Canetti, he then continued to perfect his vocal technique with Adelaide Saraceni, Pier Miranda Ferraro and Gian Franca Ostini.
After winning the Concorso Internationale Giacomantonio, he made his debut in 1990 as Pinkerton in “Madama Butterfly” in Cosenza.
Since then Marco Berti’s artistic ascent has continued and the brilliance of his career is constantly being consolidated in Italy’s main theatres as well as abroad, where he is unanimously acclaimed by the public and the critics. His interpretations underline his clear phrasing, the magnificent quality of his voice, both mellow and powerful, and by many considered among the most beautiful in Italian opera.
Marco Berti’s extraordinary vocal qualities and scenic mastery have recently allowed him to count among his successes one of the most demanding and complex roles in the Verdian repertoire: “Otello”. The Spanish critic, Alonzo Gonzales of “La Razón”, who heard his debut in this role at the “Festival de Opera de La Coruna” in September 2010, named him “The Otello of the coming years, of the future”.
Berti is in great demand as the Artistic Directors’ preferred artist at major theatres and festivals, where he is seen as the ideal interpreter, capable of taking on an ample and multifaceted repertoire of roles that in the past were performed by legendary names, such as Corelli, Del Monaco, Bergonzi, Domingo and Pavarotti.
While Radamés, Riccardo, Adorno, Manrico, Ernani and Otello are his most admired in the Verdian repertoire, it is just as important to mention his Puccinian roles, which have brought him equal acclaim and appreciation for his vocal elegance and unrestrained scenic presence: Calaf, Des Grieux, Pinkerton, Cavaradossi and Edgar in the eponymous opera.
Great successes are also Marco Berti’s interpretations of Don José in Bizet’s “Carmen” and Canio in Leoncavalli’s “Pagliacci”.
Marco Berti has worked with many of the world’s great conductors, such as: Gianandrea Gavazzeni, Zubin Metha, Lorin Maazel, Riccardo Muti, Antonio Pappano, Daniel Oren, James Conlon and Nicola Luisotti and world renowned stage directors like: Franco Zeffirelli, Pier Luigi Pizzi, Pier’Alli and Liliana Cavani, Luc Bondy, Ferzan Ozpetek and many more.
Spanning more than two decades, Marco Berti’s career consists of an unbroken string of successes in the major opera houses around the world, from Covent Garden to The Metropolitan in New York, from Teatro alla Scala in Milan to the Arena of Verona, from Liceu in Barcelona to l’Opéra de Paris, and as far as the grand Oriental stages of Beijing and Tokyo.
In September 2011 “STYLE”, the prestigious supplement of Corriere della Sera, has consecrated Marco Berti in the top four better tenors in the world, he is there described as the Italian quality tenor disputed between the major theaters of the world.
photo: Gianluca Dangerio
Gesangsstudium an der Gheorge Dima-Musikhochschule in Klausenburg
Stipendium der Liz Mohn Kultur- und Musikstiftung (2011-2013)
Bezug zur Staatsoper:
Ensemblemitglied der Staatsoper Hamburg seit 2013/14
Don Giovanni/Leporello (Don Giovanni), Figaro (Le Nozze di Figaro), Großinquisitor (Don Carlos), Un Moine (Don Carlos), Basilio(Il Barbiere di Siviglia), Dulcamara (L’Elisird’Amore), Colline (La Bohème), Raimondo (Lucia di Lammermoor), Cesare Angelotti (Tosca), Ramfis (Aida), Lodovico (Otello), Pietro (Simon Boccanegra), Pistola (Falstaff), Panthée (Les Troyens), Walther Fürst (Guillaume Tell), Bonzo (Madama Butterfly), 2. Geharnischter/Sprecher (Die Zauberflöte), Il Dottore Grenvil (La Traviata), Ein Fischer (Stilles Meer), Vater Delacay/Kapitän Walton (Frankenstein), Bottom (A Midsummer Night's Dream), Melisso (Alcina), Zuniga (Carmen), Oberpriester des Baal (Nabucco), Larkens (La Fanciulla del West),u.a.
Opera Nationala Romana in Klausenburg, Opera Nationala in Bukarest, Staatsoper Unter den Linden Berlin, Hamburgische Staatsoper, Bayerische Staatsoper u.a.
Zusammenarbeit mit Regisseuren:
David Alden, Vincent Boussard, Michael Thalheimer, Stefan Herheim, Roger Vontobel, Jette Steckel, Kirill Serebrennikow, u.a.
Zusammenarbeit mit Dirigenten:
Simone Young, Carlo Montanaro, Kent Nagano, Christopher Ward, Christoph Gedschold, Gabriele Ferro, Jean-Christophe Spinosi, Nathan Brock, Paolo Carigani, Adrian Müller, Pier Giorgio Morandi, Renato Palumbo, Riccardo Minasi, Diego Fasolis, Lorenzo Viotti, Josep Caballé-Domenech, u.a.
Figaro (Il Barbiere di Siviglia), Giorgio Germont (La Traviata), Ford (Falstaff), Falstaff (Falstaff), Jack Rance (La Fanciulla del West), Don Carlo (La Forza del Destino), Enrico (Lucia di Lammermoor), Rodrigo (Don Carlos), Conte di Luna (Il Trovatore), Rigoletto (Rigoletto), Jago (Otello), Onegin (Eugen Onegin), Michonnet (Adriana Lecouvreur), Simon (Simon Boccanegra), Alfio (Cavalleria rusticana), Tonio (Pagliacci), Gérard (Andrea Chénier), Scarpia (Tosca), Miller (Luisa Miller), Amonasro (Aida), Gokaud (Pelléas et Mélisande), Michele (Il Tabarro), Schicchi (Gianni Schicchi), Macbeth (Macbeth), Tell (Guillaume Tell), Renato (Un Ballo in Maschera), et al.
Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Semperoper Dresden, Teatro La Fenice in Venice, Los Angeles Opera, Metropolitan Opera, San Francisco Opera, Teatro Massimo in Palermo, Teatro dell’Opera di Roma, Wiener Staatsoper, Theater an der Wien, Teatro San Carlo in Naples, Royal Opera House Covent Garden, Hamburgische Staatsoper, Gran Teatre del Liceu in Barcelona, Teatro Real in Madrid, et al.
Cooperation with directors:
Damiano Michieletto, Franco Zeffirelli, Liliana Cavani, Graham Vick, et al.
Cooperation with conductors:
Claudio Abbado, Riccardo Muti, Daniele Gatti, Zubin Mehta, Myung Whun-Chung, et al.
Sergei Ababkin was born in 1991 in Parabel, Russian Federation. In 2008 he entered the vocal faculty of Krasnoyarsk College of Arts by Ivanov-Radkevich (teacher V. M. Gavrichkov). 2011 he won the first prize of the International Competition “Romansiada” in Moscow. A year later Sergei Ababkin entered the vocal faculty of the St. Petersburg State Conservatory by Rimsky-Korsakov (teacher n. a. of Russia, Y. M. Marusin) and is currently in his fourth year.
His repertoire includes Lykov in Rimsky-Korsakov´s “The Tsar's Bride”, Lensky in Tchaikovsky´s “Eugene Onegin” and young Romani in Rachmaninoff´s “Aleko”.
From 2016/17 to 2017/18 Sergei Ababkin was part of the International Opera Studio at the Hamburg State Opera.
photo: Kartal Karagedik
Soprano Narea Son was born in Seoul, South Korea and received her Bachelor in Voice from Seoul National University. She completed her studies with a master degree in Opera at the Hamburg University of Music and Theatre and the concert exam Opera with Carolyn James.
At the age of 19 she gave her first solo concert for “Debut für rising star”, a series of concerts at Kumho Concert Hall. She sang Mimi in “La Bohème”, Donna Elvira in “Don Giovanni”, Le feu, La Princesse and Le Rossignol in “L'Enfant et les Sortilèges”, Valencienne (The Merry Widow), Queen of the Night (Die Zauberflöte) as well as the soprano solo of the “Messiah” by Händel in university productions.
In addition to her studies she has taken part in Master classes with Edda Moser, Cheryl Studer, Bruna Baglioni, Mariella Devia, Brigitte Fassbaender and Joyce DiDonato at Carnegie Hall in New York with Live Stream by Arte TV.
From the season of 2016/17 to 2017/18 Narea Son is a member of the International Opera Studio of the Hamburg State Opera.
Highlights of the last season were Katze Ivanka (Premiere of “Katze Ivanka” von Vera Nemirova), Papagena (Die Zauberflöte), Taumännchen (Hänsel und Gretel) and Barbarina (Le nozze di Figaro), Giannetta (L'elisir d'amore) as well as Pamina (“Erzittre, feiger Bösewicht!”, premiere by Georges Delnon), under the baton of Kent Nagano.
photo: Kartal Karagedik
Philharmonisches Staatsorchester Hamburg
The Philharmonic State Orchestra is Hamburg’s largest and oldest orchestra, looking back on many years of musical history. When the “Philharmonic Orchestra” and the “Orchestra of the Hamburg Municipal Theatre” merged in 1934, two tradition-steeped orchestras combined. Philharmonic concerts have been performed in Hamburg since 1828, artists such as Clara Schumann, Franz Liszt and Johannes Brahms being regular guests of the Philharmonic Society. The history of the opera company goes back even further: Hamburg has been home to musical theatre since 1678, even if a regular opera or theatre orchestra was only formed later. To this day, the Philharmonic State Orchestra has embodied the sound of the Hansa City, a concert and opera orchestra in one.
During its long history, the orchestra encountered great artist personalities. Apart from composers of the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries, such as Georg Philipp Telemann, Piotr I. Tchaikovsky, Richard Strauss, Gustav Mahler, Sergey Prokofiev and Igor Stravinsky, since the 20th century chief conductors such as Karl Muck, Eugen Jochum, Joseph Keilberth, Wolfgang Sawallisch, Horst Stein, Gerd Albrecht, Ingo Metzmacher and Simone Young have shaped the orchestra’s sound. Renowned conductors of the pre-war era such as Otto Klemperer, Wilhelm Furtwängler, Bruno Walter, Karl Böhm and Hans Schmidt-Isserstedt gave brilliant performances, as did outstanding conductors of our times: suffice it to mention Sir Neville Marriner, Christian Thielemann, Semyon Bychkov, Kirill Petrenko, Valery Gergiev and Sir Roger Norrington.
Starting with the 2015/2016 season, Kent Nagano has taken on the position of Hamburg’s General Music Director and Chief Conductor of the Philharmonic State Orchestra and the Hamburg State Opera. In his first season Kent Nagano initiated a new project, the Philharmonic Academy at St. Michaelis, focusing on experimentation and chamber music. In 2016 Nagano and the Philharmonic undertook a successful three-week concert tour in South America. Since 2017 Kent Nagano and the Philharmonic State Orchestra have continued the traditional Philharmonic Concerts at the new Elbphilharmonie, for which they commissioned Jörg Widmann to compose the oratorio ARCHE, which was given its world premiere during the hall’s opening festivities.
The Philharmonic State Orchestra offers approximately 35 concerts per season and performs more than 240 performances per year at the Hamburg State Opera and the Hamburg Ballet – John Neumeier, making it Hamburg’s busiest orchestra. The stylistic bandwidth covered by the 134 musicians, ranging from historically informed performance practice to contemporary works and including concert, opera and ballet repertoire, is unique throughout Germany. Chamber Music has a long tradition at the Philharmonic State Orchestra: what began in 1929 with a concert series for chamber orchestra has been continued since 1968 by a series of chamber music only, which celebrates its 50-year anniversary in 2017/18.
In 2008 Simone Young and the Philharmonic State Orchestra won the Brahms Award of the Schleswig-Holstein Brahms Society. In 2012 Simone Young received a Helpmann Award for performances of Mahler’s Symphony No. 2 and Wagner’s Rheingold with the Philharmonic in Brisbane, Australia. The orchestra has recorded the complete Ring by Wagner as well as the complete symphonies of Johannes Brahms and Anton Bruckner – the latter in the rarely-performed original versions – as well as works by Mahler, Hindemith and Berg, and has released DVDs of opera and ballet productions by Hosokawa, Offenbach, Reimann, Auerbach, J.S. Bach, Puccini, Poulenc and Weber.
The members of the Philharmonic State Orchestra feel equally beholden to the Hansa City’s musical tradition and responsible for the city’s artistic future. Since 1978 the musicians have been participating in education programmes in Hamburg’s schools. To this day, the TV format Musikkontakte initiated by Gerd Albrecht during his tenure as General Music Director is unforgotten. Today, the orchestra maintains a broad education programme, including school and kindergarten visits, patronage for music projects, introductory events for children and family concerts. The orchestra’s own academy prepares young musicians for their professional careers. The Philharmonic’s musicians thereby make an equally enjoyable and valuable contribution to tomorrow’s music education in the music metropolis of Hamburg.
photo: Foto: Felix Broede
Chor der Hamburgischen Staatsoper
The chorus members appear on stage at the Hamburg State Opera in a different role almost every night. From one day to the next, they might be sailors, gypsies, pilgrims or conspirators, then courtiers, hunters, the deranged or the imprisoned. In the role of crusaders in I Lombardi alla prima Crociata they travel to Jerusalem, other nights they are invited to Madama Butterfly's marriage or acclaim Prince Igor. The ladies and gentlemen of the opera chorus demonstrate their artistic prowess, their flexibility, and their love of the stage in every performance.
With a membership around 70, the chorus of the Hamburg State Opera has been one of the world’s best opera choruses for many years. The varied repertoire – almost always in the original language – is multifaceted and includes baroque operas and dramatic operas, major works by Verdi and Wagner as well as contemporary pieces. At the start of the 2013/14 season, Eberhard Friedrich took over the post of Chorus Master.